Artificial Intelligence AI Advantages Disadvantages

From Current Affairs Notes for UPSC » Editorials & In-depths » This matter

Artificial Intelligence (AI), also referred to as the Industrial Revolution 4.0, has been making deep strides in scientific and technological innovation throughout completely different fields. It is capable of bringing considerable transformations in the finest way civilian actions and navy operations are carried out. However, there are also concerns relating to the AI’s implications for employment and other ethical points.

Mindmap Learning Programme (MLP)
Learn/Revise 10X Faster!


What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
* It is a branch of pc science that offers with creating computers or machines as clever as human beings.
* It refers to the ability of the machines to carry out human intelligence processes like thinking, perceiving, studying, problem-solving and decision making.
* Thus in easy terms, Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence showed by machines.
* The term Artificial Intelligence was coined by John McCarthy in 1956 at the Dartmouth convention, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
* There are two subsets underneath the Umbrella term AI, they’re – Machine Learning and Deep Learning.

Important Personalities of Modern India (Article + Mind Map) – From Prelims Sureshots!READ NOW

What is the distinction between Machine Learning and Deep Learning?
Machine Learning:
* A subset of artificial intelligence that offers with the creation of algorithms that may modify itself without human intervention to generate desired output- by feeding itself through structured information.
* Machine learning algorithms are built to “learn” to do things by understanding labeled information, then use it to produce further outputs with extra units of data. However, they need to be retrained through human intervention when the precise output isn’t the specified one (errors).

Deep Learning:
* A subset of machine learning where algorithms are created and performance just like those in machine studying, nonetheless, there are different layers of these algorithms- every offering a special interpretation to the info it feeds on.
* Such a community of algorithms is named artificial neural networks, because it imitates the function of the human neural networks present in the mind.
* Deep learning networks do not want human intervention because the nested layers in the neural networks put data through hierarchies of various concepts, which eventually learn from their own errors. But even these are topic to flawed outputs if the standard of knowledge is not adequate.

To put it merely, the important thing distinction between deep studying and machine studying stems from the way in which information is presented to the system. Machine studying algorithms almost all the time require structured information, whereas deep studying networks depend on layers of the ANN (artificial neural networks). Thus Data is the governor right here. It is the quality of information which finally determines the standard of the result.

What are some of the examples of Artificial Intelligent Technologies?
* Robotics and Automation: Robots may be programmed to carry out high-volume, repeatable duties usually performed by people.
* Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the processing of human language by a pc program. For example, spam detectors look at the topic line and textual content of an email in order to determine whether or not it’s junk.
* Pattern recognition is a subset of machine learning that seeks to establish patterns in data. For example, a machine studying program can differentiate cats from canines among 1000 images of cats and dogs through pattern recognition like face, whiskers, etc.
* Machine vision is the science of giving computer systems a vision by capturing and analyzing visible information utilizing a digital camera, analog-to-digital conversion, and digital signal processing. It is generally compared to human eyesight, however, machine vision isn’t constrained by biology = it might possibly even be programmed to see via partitions.

Landmark Judgements that Shaped India (Article + Mind Map) – From Prelims Sureshots!READ NOW

What are the applications/advantages of Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
Self-driving Cars:AI algorithms are one of many primary elements that facilitate self-driving automobiles to make sense of their surroundings, taking in feeds from cameras put in around the vehicle and detecting objects like roads, visitors indicators, other automobiles, and folks.

Digital assistants and smart speakers:Siri, Alexa, Cortana, and Google Assistant utilise artificial intelligence to transform spoken words to text and map the textual content to certain commands. AI assists digital assistants to make sense of various nuances in spoken language and synthesize human-like voices.

Translation:For several decades, translating textual content between varied languages was a pain point for computer systems. But deep learning created a revolution in companies similar to Google Translate. But to be exact, AI still has a long way to go earlier than it perfects human language, however so far, the advances are excellent.

Facial recognition:Facial recognition is doubtless certainly one of the most distinguished functions of artificial intelligence. It has totally different makes use of, including unlocking your phone, paying along with your face, and detecting intruders in your house.


* In the medical area also, we are going to find the broad application of AI. Doctors assess the sufferers and their well being risks with the assistance of artificial machine intelligence. It educates them in regards to the unwanted effects of assorted medicines.
* Medical professionals are often skilled with artificial surgical procedure simulators. It finds an enormous application in detecting and monitoring neurological issues as it could possibly simulate the mind functions.
* Robotics is commonly utilized in serving to mental health sufferers to come out of despair and stay energetic.
* A well-liked application of artificial intelligence is radiosurgery. Radiosurgery is used in operating tumours and this will really assist in the operation without damaging the encompassing tissues.

Agriculture Sector:AI could be utilised to foretell advisories for sowing, pest control, input management = allow increased income and giving stability for the agricultural group. Image classification tools in addition to distant and domestically sensed data can convey a revolutionary change in – utilisation and efficiency of farm machinery, weed removing, early disease identification, harvesting, and grading.

Business Sector:

* In order to care for extremely repetitive duties – robotic automation is utilized which perform faster, effortlessly and tirelessly than humans.
* Moreover, Machine learning algorithms are being built-in into analytics and CRM (Customer Relationship Management) platforms to supply higher customer support. Chatbots getting used in the websites to offer immediate service to clients.
* Automation of job positions has also become a dialogue point amongst teachers and IT consultancies like Gartner and Forrester.

Education Sector:

* Artificial Intelligence could make sure instructional processes automated like grading, rewarding marks, and so forth. thus giving educators more time.
* Furthermore, it could possibly analyse college students and adapt to their requirements in order to help them work at their very own tempo.
* AI can change where and the way college students study, perhaps even replacing a couple of lecturers.

Financial Sector:

* AI is utilized to non-public finance functions and could compile personal knowledge and provides monetary recommendation. In reality, these days software trades more than humans in Wall Street.
* Detection of economic fraud makes use of artificial intelligence in a sensible card-based system.

Legal Sector:Automation can outcome in a sooner decision of pending instances by minimising the time taken whereas analyzing instances = higher use of time and more efficient legal & judicial processes.

Manufacturing sector:Robots are being utilised for manufacturing since a long time now however more superior exponential technologies have emerged like additive manufacturing (3D Printing) which with the support of AI can revolutionize the entire manufacturing supply chain ecosystem.

Intelligent Robots:Robots can do the duties given by a human with the assistance of sensors to detect bodily data from the actual world like mild, warmth, temperature, motion, sound, bump, and stress. Furthermore, they have effective processors, a number of sensors and enormous memory, to showcase intelligence. Also, they will learn from their errors and hence can adapt to the new environment.

Gaming: AI has a major position in strategic games like chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, and so on., where the machine can consider a huge variety of attainable positions according to heuristic rule (A algorithm intended to extend the probability of solving some problem).

Cyber Security: In the twentieth convention on e-governance in India it was mentioned that AI has the aptitude to strengthen cybersecurity ecosystem in India and must be explored further.

Smart Cities and Infrastructure: AI is used to observe patronage and accordingly control associated methods corresponding to pavement lighting, park maintenance, and different operational circumstances = result in price savings + enhancing safety and accessibility.

Space sector: Intelligent robots are fed with data and are despatched to discover area. Since they are machines with steel our bodies, they’re more resistant and have a better ability to endure the house and hostile ambiance. Because they are created in such a way that they can’t be modified or get disfigured or breakdown in a hostile setting.

Mining sector: Artificial intelligence and the science of robotics may be put to make use of in mining and different fuel exploration processes. Not only that, these complicated machines can be utilized for exploring the ocean ground and therefore overcome the human limitations.

Defence Sector: Artificial Intelligence (AI) based tools would assist the defence forces constructively in areas such as choice assist, sensor information evaluation, predictive upkeep, situational awareness, accurate knowledge extraction, security, etc. These tools will assist defence personnel in better operations, upkeep, and logistics assist.

What are the concerns with the AI?
Job losses
* Replacement of humans with machines can result in large-scale unemployment. Unemployment is a socially undesirable phenomenon. People with nothing to do can result in the harmful use of their creative minds.
* Humans can unnecessarily be extremely depending on the machines if using artificial intelligence becomes rampant. They will lose their creative energy and will turn into lazy.
* Also, if humans start thinking in a damaging method, they will create havoc with these machines.

Robot bosses
* If you might have an issue with your present human boss, be thankful that he isn’t a cold, emotionless machine because AI is already getting used to observe employee productiveness.
* In what seems like the scary nightmares of a dystopian future, IBM’s Watson has been utilizing AI and Watson Analytics to decide if employees are worthy of a pay rise, a bonus or a promotion by wanting at the expertise and previous initiatives of workers to evaluate the qualities and skills that individuals might need to serve the corporate sooner or later.

Human error
* Although AI can just about remove human error from processes, it might possibly still exist in the code, together with bias and prejudice.
* Being largely algorithm-based, technology can be coded to have a negative impact on sure demographics and discriminate against individuals.
* For instance, Microsoft’s ill-fated chatbot, Tay Tweets, had to be taken down after solely 16 hours after it started to tweet racist and inflammatory content material – concepts it repeated from different Twitter users.
* Worryingly, if security is not 100 percent, hackers can take benefit of AI’s thirst for data.

High Cost:
* Creation of artificial intelligence requires huge costs as they’re very advanced machines. Their restore and upkeep require large costs.
* They have software packages which need frequent up-gradation to cater to the needs of the changing environment and the necessity for the machines to be smarter by the day.
* In the case of severe breakdowns, the procedure to get well misplaced codes and reinstating the system would possibly require huge time and value.

Not ethical to copy Humans:
* Intelligence is believed to be a present of nature. Therefore an ethical argument continues, whether human intelligence is to be replicated or not.

Cannot replicate Humans:
* Machines do not have any emotions and moral values. They perform what’s programmed and cannot make the judgment of right or mistaken. They can’t take choices in the event that they encounter a state of affairs unfamiliar to them. They either perform incorrectly or breakdown in such situations.
* Unlike humans, artificial intelligence cannot be improved with experience. With time, it could result in wear and tear. It stores plenty of data however the means in which it could be accessed and used could be very different from human intelligence.
* Machines are unable to change their responses to altering environments.
* In the world of artificial intelligence, there might be nothing like working with a complete coronary heart or passionately. Care or concerns usually are not present in the machine intelligence dictionary. There is not any sense of belonging or togetherness or a human contact. They fail to distinguish between a hardworking particular person and an inefficient particular person.

No Original Creativity:
* While the AI might help you design and create, they are no match to the ability of considering that the human mind has and even the originality of a inventive thoughts.
* Human beings are highly sensitive and emotional intellectuals. They see, hear, think and really feel. Their thoughts are guided by the emotions which completely lacks in machines. The inherent intuitive talents of the human brain can’t be replicated.

Privacy & Security:
The rising accessibility of facial-recognition technology has additionally increased issues with respect to privacy, security, and civil liberties.

What is the global standing of AI adoption?
* China and the U.K. estimate that by 2030, about 26% and 10% of their GDPs respectively shall be sourced from AI­ associated activities and businesses.
* There have been quite a few actions regarding AI coverage positions and the development of an AI ecosystem in numerous nations lately.
* Infrastructural supply-side initiatives have been planned by several countries for constructing a larger ecosystem of AI development.
* Even local/city governments have turn out to be more and more aware of the importance and potential of AI and have committed public investments.
* For creating the long run workforce for AI, countries are also significantly rising the allocation of sources for Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) talent development via investment in universities, mandating new courses (e.g., AI and law), and launching schemes to retrain folks.
* AI technology development and functions are rapidly evolving with major implications for economies and societies. A research by EY and NASSCOM discovered that by 2022, about forty six % of the workforce will be engaged in completely new jobs.

What are the attainable areas for AI applications in Indian conditions?
* India has the potential to position itself amongst leaders on the global AI map – with a unique brand of #AIforAll.
* It can complement Digital India Mission by helping in the big data evaluation which is not attainable with out using AI.
* Targeted supply of services, schemes, and subsidy can be further fine-tuned.
* Smart border surveillance and monitoring to reinforce safety
* Weather forecasting fashions may become proactive and therefore preplanning for any future mishaps such as floods, droughts and therefore addressing the farming disaster, farmer’s suicide, crop losses, and so on.
* By analyzing massive information of street security information and NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau) information for crimes, new insurance policies may be formulated.
* Disaster management could be faster and more accessible with the assistance of robots and clever machines.
* In the counterinsurgency and patrolling operations, we frequently hear the loss of CRPF jawans which could be minimized by using the robotic army and lesser human personnel.
* AI can be utilized to automate authorities processes, therefore, minimizing human interactions and maximizing transparency and accountability.
* It may be utilized to study historic literature upon medicines and therefore help in modernizing the health care with the juxtaposition of contemporary machines and historic techniques.
* In the remotest areas the place the final leg of governance is nearly damaged, AI can do the job. For Example: in the tribal areas and the hilly areas of the northeast.

What are the measures taken by the government to advertise AI?
* A Task Force on Artificial Intelligence (AI) for India’s Economic Transformation was constituted on 24thAugust 2017. The Task Force gave its report on 19thJanuary 2018. It has recommended an Inter-Ministerial National Artificial Intelligence Mission to behave as a nodal agency for coordinating AI associated actions in India.
* NITI Aayog unveiled its discussion paper on national strategy on AI which seeks to guide research and development in new and emerging technologies. NITI has recognized 5 sectors – healthcare, agriculture, education, sensible cities and infrastructure, and transportation – to focus its efforts on the implementation of AI. The paper focusses on how India can leverage transformative technologies to make sure social and inclusive progress.
* In order to create a coverage framework and to develop the ecosystem for Artificial Intelligence, Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, has constituted four committees masking all the features of AI. These Committees are: 1. Committee on platforms and information for AI,
2. Committee on leveraging AI for identifying National Missions in key sectors,
3. Committee on mapping technological capabilities, key coverage enablers, skilling, re-skilling and R&D
4. Committee on cybersecurity, security, legal and ethical points.

* Task Force created by the Ministry of Defence has studied research and innovation in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and outlined its adoption in defence sector including a future roadmap on the way to combine and embed AI strategy with a core defence technique.
* In addition, the Defence Public Sector Undertakings and Ordnance Factories have been assigned a roadmap for developing AI-enabled merchandise.
* Centre for artificial intelligence and robotics (CAIR), is the principle laboratory of DRDO for research and development in numerous areas of defense, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and is positioned in Bangalore. It is concerned within the Research & Development of high-quality Secure Communication, Command, and Control, and Intelligent Systems.
* Projects: NETRA- software to intercept on-line communication, SECOS- Secure working system.
* India joined the league of leading countries together with USA, UK, EU, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, Singapore to launch the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI or Gee-Pay). GPAI is an international and multi-stakeholder initiative to information the accountable development and use of AI according to human rights, inclusion, variety, innovation, and financial progress.

What are the challenges to India’s Artificial Intelligence Development?
* Lack of enabling ecosystems for knowledge collection and usage.
* The low depth of AI research.
* Insufficient availability of AI experience, manpower and skilling opportunities.
* High resource cost and low consciousness for adopting AI in enterprise processes.
* Unclear privateness, safety and ethical regulations.
* Unattractive Intellectual Property regime to incentivise research and adoption of AI.

What must be done?
* Incentivising the creation of jobs in AI fields that might represent the model new service trade.
* Recognition and standardisation of informal training institutions.
* Creation of open platforms for learning and financial incentives for reskilling of workers.
* The lack of certified school that poses a significant issue within the current state of affairs may be addressed through innovative measures similar to MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses).
* Acceptability and adoption of those decentralised instructing mechanisms may be ensured through prescribed certification in collaboration with the personal sector and academic establishments.
* Additional funding and collaboration with the personal sector and educational establishments to be able to meet the market demand.
* To encourage the event of sustainable AI solutions at an applicable value level for sectors such as well being, education, and agriculture, it is essential that a degree playing area is ensured and an enabling setting be created for all players in the value chain.
* AI is a highly collaborative domain, and any framework aimed at selling AI must be aligned accordingly. A multi­pronged approach, involving varied stakeholders and promoting a collaborative method is required for promoting the development of AI tools as nicely as the adoption of AI in various fields of activity.
* UNESCO’s Global Agreement on the Ethics of AI can information governments and firms alike.

Way ahead
Despite the threats and challenges, it would be silly to argue that Artificial Intelligence (AI) is not the longer term and it’s solely a matter of time that machines will substitute many of the jobs. It is as a outcome of AI just isn’t the top of the road for humanity as we now have a historical past of technological revolutions resulting in optimistic social and political modifications in society corresponding to steam engines, industrial revolutions and most just lately the computers and internet. Nonetheless, there shall be several opportunities in the fields not but known and there will be more jobs to serve human wants.

Read More: